Molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses
The principal material of inheritance. It is found in chromosomes and consists of molecules that are long unbranched chains made up of many nucleotides. Each nucleotide is a combination of phosphoric acid, the monosaccharide deoxyribose and one of four nitrogenous bases: thymine, cytosine, adenine or guanine. The number of possible arrangements of nucleotides along the DNA chain is immense. Usually two DNA strands are linked together in parallel by specific base-pairing and are helically coiled. Replication of DNA molecules is accomplished by separation of the two strands, followed by the building up of matching strands by means of base-pairing, using the two halves as templates. By a mechanism involving RNA, the structure of DNA is translated into the structure of proteins during their synthesis from amino acids.
Two complementary strands of DNA annealed in the form of a double helix. Synonym: duplex DNA.
A biopolymer of deoxyribonucleic acid (a type of nucleic acid) that has four different chemical groups, called bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
A nucleic acid found in all living things (and some non-living, see virus); consists of a polymer formed from nucleotides which are shaped into a double helix; it is associated with the transmission of genetic information.